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The effects of regulation on competition in an emerging economy from an energy sector perspective
The effects of regulation on competition in an emerging economy from an energy sector perspective
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Last Update: 4/6/2011
Master's Dissertation * Amod, Ashraf * 2010-04-01 * Abstract The debate of regulation and government involvement in markets has been alive for decades. With the recent economic crisis, the debate has been elevated and most developed economies have had to rely on government involvement for their survival. The most contentious point for many was whether regulation positively or negatively impacts the markets. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of regulation on the energy sector in South Africa and whether regulation attracts new entries into the energy sector, thus creating an environment for competition. The research methodology used was based on exploratory research which comprised of face-to-face in-depth interviews with key informers from each of the stakeholder groups. In-depth interviews provided useful and detailed information from each key informer. The results from thirteen in-depth, face-to-face interviews with the key informers were analysed and presented. It was found that the majority of the key informers believed that regulation impacts competition and profits. Having the entire sector regulated has more of a negative impact. There is a lack of new entries into the energy sector with minimum competition created. There is an urgent need for a constructive pricing structure in the energy sector.
The Renovation and Re-commissioning of an AQ500 SODAR System
The Renovation and Re-commissioning of an AQ500 SODAR System
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Last Update: 4/5/2011
12.1MB * Department of Mechanical Engineering The Renovation and Re-commissioning of an AQ500 SODAR System for Use in the Assessment of Urban Wind Energy Applications * Author: Roger Carter Supervisor: Dr Matthew Stickland A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of degree in Master of Science in Renewable Energy Systems and the Environment 2010 ************************* Abstract The technology of remote wind monitoring is at the forefront of wind resource assessment. The use of SODAR systems for rural wind resource measurements is relatively well established; however their use within the urban environment is yet to be fully explored. The wind flow within an urban environment proves to be considerably more complex than its rural counterpart due to building interactions and increased sources of turbulence. An old AQ500 SODAR system is to be recommissioned for use on an urban rooftop. The process of renovation is documented, and the fault finding process outlined, to provide a fuller knowledge of system operation and to eliminate any faults present. The proposed site for the system is fully assessed with regard to expected air flows caused by its own topography, and that of the surrounding area. Boundary Layer theory and the urban heat island phenomenon are examined in order to assess the air flow in and around cities. The current and future states of urban wind energy are discussed, and the position of SODAR systems within the field is evaluated. Future applications of SODAR and remote wind sensing techniques are presented.
Renewable Energy Strategy for Argyll & Bute Council
Renewable Energy Strategy for Argyll & Bute Council
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Last Update: 4/5/2011
1.5MB * Author: Jean Luc Lefaucheur Supervisor: Paul Tuohy A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of degree in Master of Science in Renewable Energy Systems and the Environment 2010 ********************** Abstract The subject of the thesis is to look at a potential strategy for renewable energy generation in Argyll & Bute Council, Scotland. The main focus is to examine what can be done regarding the energy demand and reduction of carbon emissions relating more specifically to council buildings. The priorities are for the Council to obtain a reasonably short payment and reduce its carbon emissions as much as possible. The objectives of the project are to: • Identify the type of renewable energies that the Council should consider investing in • Quantify the potential benefits of each technology or scheme • Conduct financial analysis to establish what schemes are most attractive • Analyze the key parameters which influence on the financial viability of each technology or scheme and provide recommendations accordingly The investigation of the most promising resources available reveals that wind power, PV systems and biomass can provide the most appropriate and readily available solutions for the Council. Several tools for financial analysis of energy systems were created. We also have studied in details the financial viability of various scenarios for wind, solar PV and and biomass. Wind generation has the largest potential but it would be necessarily to set up large scale wind operations, as small and medium wind can not contribute a large part. Operations between 500 kW and a few MW could be financially viable given the new Feed-in-Tariffs in place. PV panels on Council buildings could contribute up to about a quarter of the Council’s electricity demand. Financial viability for PV depends highly on the capital cost. Biomass as a replacement of oil and/or gas could contribute a major part of buildings heating requirements with good payback period using local biomass fuel sources.
Performance Optimization of Small Scale Photovoltaics
Performance Optimization of Small Scale Photovoltaics
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Last Update: 4/5/2011
Author: Matthew Martin Supervisor: Mr Cameron Johnstone A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of degree in Master of Science in Renewable Energy Systems and the Environment 2010*************************** Abstract The focus of this thesis is on solar energy and specifically how to optimise the energy yields from photovoltaic panels. Consideration is given as to how this energy is generated and where losses most commonly occur. Methods of optimisation of performance and mean time between failures are investigated. The theory behind PV generation is discussed and electrical properties and device efficiencies defined. Methods of typical power optimisation in the field of photovoltaics are investigated along with recent and current research into this area. The specific research focuses in on the design of an experiment to test and define performance parameters for PV cells. Sensors are chosen with consideration to the further development of power optimisation and condition monitoring systems. N interface was designed with in LabVIEW and the sensors calibrated to ensure accurate results were obtained The PV cell performance is then tested under various different conditions. Losses in performance due to various different changes are identified. Finally it’s performance in considered against the use of maximum power point tracking and the impact of ignoring this as a method of power optimisation.
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power System Performance of Plug Power GenCore 5B48 Unit
Hydrogen Fuel Cell Power System Performance of Plug Power GenCore 5B48 Unit
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Last Update: 4/5/2011
3.4MB* Author: Andres Gabriel Christou Supervisor: Professor Joe Clarke A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of degree in Master of Science in Renewable Energy Systems and the Environment 2010 ----------------------- In this Thesis are presented the results of an experimental analysis of the dynamic response of a low pressure proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack to step changes in load, which are characteristic of both hydrogen stationary power systems and automotive applications. The analysis and experiment are based on a low pressure 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack and the model tested was a GenCore® 5B48 Fuel Cell System. This research main aim is to acquire a better understanding of the electrical and electrochemical processes when accounting for the characteristic cell voltage response during transients and establish the overall efficiencies. The most important features of the GenCore 5B48 fuel cell system are illustrated in this thesis by analysing the obtained results from the experimentation, features such as electric characteristics, overall efficiency, fuel usage, and in general the operation performance of the fuel cell under load conditions.
Evaluating the Performance of Available Computational Codes
Evaluating the Performance of Available Computational Codes
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Last Update: 4/5/2011
3.6MB Department of Mechanical Engineering Evaluating the Performance of Available Computational codes Aerodynamic Characteristics of Wind Turbine A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of degree in Master of Science in Renewable Energy Systems and the Environment Commercially for Determining the Airfoils Author: Andrew William Kay Supervisor: Dr Andrew Grant 2010 ----------------------------------------------------- Due to a growing awareness of the environmental impact of burning fossil fuels, combined with an increasing concern over the finiteness of the world’s reserves of coal, oil and gas, governments around the world have been hard pressed to take measures to adopt more green technologies for power generation. The most significant advancements have been made in the field of wind energy, with the wind turbine now the fastest growing technology for renewable power generation in the world. Despite this rapid development, the wind industry must still strive to ensure that any device designed for commercial use is reliable and able to perform to a level capable of satisfying its economic projections. In the design of a commercially viable wind turbine, it is imperative that an accurate assessment is made of the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoils employed on the blades. Errors made may result in wrong estimates of the turbines performance and economic projections. If these characteristics cannot be determined by experimental tests, a designer will have to rely on computational methods. This thesis evaluates the performance of three commercially available computational codes for determining the aerodynamic coefficients of airfoils. Two airfoil analysis and design codes and a CFD solver are applied to evaluate their accuracy and ease of use at reproducing the coefficients of two wind turbine airfoils, previously determined by experiment. The use of CFD was found to be more labour intensive than both the airfoil analysis and design codes; however, it was shown to be more accurate and flexible for determining the behaviour of complex turbulent flows. Three turbulence models were used in the CFD solver to analyse their accuracy for modelling the flow over airfoils. It was shown that a turbulence model must be equipped to model the behaviour of adverse pressure gradient flows in order to accurately model the forces experienced by a wind turbine airfoil. The SST k-? and Spalart-Allmaras models proved to satisfy this criterion the best out of three analysed models. The accuracy of CFD was also shown to be largely dependent on the standard of the mesh used. The mesh must be able to map the orientation of the wake region, which is often modified for wind turbine airfoils in comparison to those used for other aerospace applications. A methodology on how to improve the standard of a mesh used to model the flow around a wind turbine airfoil is also proposed.
An Investigation into the Suitability of Air and Ground Source Heat Pumps to the UK environment with
An Investigation into the Suitability of Air and Ground Source Heat Pumps to the UK environment with
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Last Update: 4/5/2011
2.32Mb Department of Mechanical Engineering An Investigation into the Suitability of Air and Ground Source Heat Pumps to the UK environment with a Swimming Pool Complex Heat Pump Installation Author: Paul Martin Livingstone Supervisor: Doctor Nick Kelly * A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of degree in Master of Science in Renewable Energy Systems and the Environment 2010 ********* As the UK strives towards a low carbon future, strong attempts must be made to provide both space heating and hot water heating through sustainable generating methods. Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) and Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP) technologies have the potential to contribute significantly to this goal with highly efficient, electrically powered water heating capabilities. As the UK electrical grid turns increasingly towards renewable generation, the hope is that heat pump technologies can move towards being carbon neutral. With the amount of systems present in the UK today being reasonably low in comparison to other leading renewable generators within Europe, this technology needs both increased awareness and funding to fulfil its potential. This thesis aims to address the current status of the current United Kingdom heat pump market and to investigate the suitability of both GSHPs and ASHPs to the UK environment. Both systems will be studied in detail and the respective attributes and deficiencies of each system will be analysed. The systems will be compared within various criteria in order to give an understanding of the financial implications of each and of their suitability to various environments within the UK. Poolewe Swimming Pool Complex in the North-West of Scotland will be used as a case study in order to investigate whether a heat pump system would suit the heating requirements of a building with high quality building fabrics and therefore a low heating demand. A recommendation will be made to the complex about which type of system would be the most suitable option for installation and a financial analysis will be presented. The deliverables of the thesis will be first to produce a comparison between both GSHPs and ASHPs with various criteria in mind, to recommend a suitable system to supply the Poolewe Swimming Pool Complex’s heating demands and to suggest whether the UK market has the ability, awareness and backing to fulfil its potential over the coming years.
Improving the Performance of Solar Stills using Sun Tracking
Improving the Performance of Solar Stills using Sun Tracking
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Last Update: 4/5/2011
1.8MB Department of Mechanical Engineering Author: Taiwo, M. Olalekan Supervisor: Prof. Joe Clarke A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of degree in Master of Science in Renewable Energy Systems and the Environment 2010 Copyright* Abstract Worldwide, some 1.1 billion people lack access to safe water and another 2.6 billion people lack access to sanitation. For the UN to achieve its Millennium Development Goals of reducing by half the population without access to water and sanitation by 2015 there is need for concerted efforts in funding research to stern the tide of global water shortage. The challenge of providing potable water is quite prevalent in the developing and poorest countries of the world, especially in the tropics and arid regions. While it would be quite difficult or challenging to invest in huge/gigantic desalination plants, they are well endowed with the required energy to drive solar desalination. Conventional means of providing potable water, especially from fossil fuel, is becoming increasingly expensive and might be unaffordable by the poorest countries of the world where water and sanitation is a major challenge. There is a need to find viable alternative sources of energy. Various renewable energy sources were explored and the solar energy is adjudged the best option. With abundance of solar energy in many of the poorest parts of the world where access to potable water is a challenge; it is reasoned that this is the best and most viable option. With solar energy as the source to power our plant; the solar still is the simplest desalination technology consisting of a shallow basin with a transparent cover and it is considered because of its cost, simplicity of design, operation and maintenance. It is equally very compatible for use in the world’s poorest countries and adaptable, for it does not require complex technical know-how to operate and maintain. The efficiency of solar energy deployment and performance of a basin-type still is considered. The effect of sun tracking on the design and operating factors such as the ambient temperature, basin temperature, brine temperature, cover temperature, and solar radiation (irradiance/intensity) and how they influence productivity were examined and analysed. Basin and brine temperatures have positive effects on the productivity, but the effect of glass cover temperature was not so obvious. It was evident from the results that the solar intensity impacted on the productivity directly and positively. A sun tracking mechanism was explored to determine how this affects the performance of the still. The still with the tracking mechanism was found to show some significant improvement by increasing the distillate yield by 19.6% with an additional 3.8% increase in overall still efficiency. With the use of a tracking mechanism, the space required to provide a daily consumption of 2-3 litres of water per person is expected to be about 1.4m2. This is a significant improvement over the traditional fixed still.
Study of Renewable Energy Project Risk Factors Influencing the Insurance Industry
Study of Renewable Energy Project Risk Factors Influencing the Insurance Industry
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Last Update: 4/5/2011
4.5Mb Author: Gary Bratt Supervisor: Dr Andrew Grant A thesis submitted in partial fulfilment for the requirement of degree in Master of Science in Renewable Energy Systems and the Environment 2010*** Abstract Until recently, the uptake of renewable energy technology for electricity generation has been slow, with most projects being larger scale developments. The introduction of new governmental policies over the past 20 years has helped encouraged development in this sector. However, only the recent introduction of Feed-in Tariffs has made the market truly accessible to large numbers of small-scale producers. Although small-scale, these new entrants require financial backing to realise their developments from both capital investment and insurance perspectives, just as the largescale developments do. Unfortunately, the financial services industry has limited experience and understanding of renewable energy projects and their associated risk factors. This project summarises the technical risk factors pertaining to the renewable technologies of most interest to new sector entrants. By considering the nature of the renewable resource being used by each technology and examining both the commercially available and prototype device technology, it is possible to realise the technology specific risk factors, as well as the more generic technical issues common across technologies during construction and operational phases of a development. Once collated, the findings are arranged to form a conceptual model, summarising the relevant technological risk factors as a basis for insurance underwriting purposes, with the potential for further actuarial development leading to a full model and thus improved insurance products.
WASTE AND ENERGY AUDIT IN A PAPER MILL
WASTE AND ENERGY AUDIT IN A PAPER MILL
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Last Update: 10/24/2010
Perera, L.A.K. - Asian Institute of Technology Bangkok, Thailand August, 1996************ Teppattana Paper Mill, a small non-integrated paper mill which manufactures paper and board was selected as the study object in this research study. The study mainly focused to trap potential waste minimization options in the mill. It mainly targeted towards raw water conservation, process modifications, improvement to the effluent treatment plant, energy conservation and to find possibilities for zero discharge. The study indicated that the raw water consumption is 90 m3/ton of paper which is 7 times higher than the standard norms and dissolved solids in raw water is 4 times higher than the accepted values. The suspended solid component leaving the manufacturing process is 59 kg/ton of paper. The overall steam energy and electrical energy consumption of the mill is found to be 2 tons/ton of paper and 631 kWh/ton of paper respectively. Approximately 25% reduction in raw water consumption of the mill and 42% reduction in suspended solids to the primary clarifier is envisaged upon implementaion of waste reduction measures such as water reuse and wastewater segregation. The study concludes with the proposals to reduce the wastewater discharge to the river by almost 100% and to reduce ground water extraction by 83%.

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